It is not my purpose here to focus on the correctness of the claim that there are "bad" patents and that such patents are sometimes abused by patent trolls. Rather, let's assume for purposes of this discussion that there is a basis for such views. As such, the question becomes: how can persons who perceive themselves threatened by bad patents and patent trolls combat this challenge?
One particularly interesting response was described in an article in the January 17, 2013 issue of Bloomberg BusinessWeek as "Crowdsourcing the Fight Against Tech Patent Trolls" here. Written by Olga Kharif, the article focuses on the activities of a company called Article One Partners here, which is described as "a website where more than 27,000 researchers sift through obscure public domain materials including scientific papers, Ph.D. theses, and even product manuals to poke holes in legal claims—and possibly earn thousands of dollars."
The business model seems to be as follows. The company charges prospective clients either a one-time fee (the range of which was not indicated) or an annual membership fee (the cost of which was also not indicated). Corporate client include companies such as Philips (which asked Article One in 2011 to examine 33 patents), Microsoft and Sony. The company pays an amount ranging from $3,000-$5,000 to the researchers who come up with what is described as "the best research". Since the creation of the company in 2008, it has paid $3.69 million to researchers; half of this amount was paid for studies carried out in 2012. It is reported that 8% of the approximately 27,000 researchers earn more than $50,500 per annum.
The Company uses an algorithm to winnow research submissions in order to find materials deemed most germane to the client's matter. Five members of the company's staff then further narrow the search results and the client itself is able to refine the search through tools available on the company's website. Gerard Pennekoek, CEO of a start-up called International Property Exchange International here, observed that ""crowdsourced model works better than any grouping of staff that you bring in-house" (although, to be balanced here, two of the members of the board of directors of International Property Exchange International are listed on the company's website as Ruud Peters, the chief intellectual property officer of Philips and an apparent source of the information about Philips Electronics' use of the services of Article One described below, and Marshall Phelps, formerly head of intellectual policy and strategy at Microsoft and a reported investor in Article One Partners). The article describes how Philips Electronics paid Article One approximately $100,000 to find conclusive prior art that convinced a would-be plaintiff to back down from a threat of filing an action for infringement. Philips had turned to Article One because, according to the report, its own in-house lawyers had found it difficult to come up with "a viable defense."