The USPTO has released advanced notice of proposed rule making concerning regulations addressing changes to Inter Partes Review and Post Grant Review practice, including addressing multiple challenges, parallel district court litigation and the institution of proceedings. The USPTO is inviting comments concerning the proposed rule making. The USPTO document states, in part:
The changes under consideration provide that, in certain circumstances in which specific elements are met (and applicable exceptions do not apply), the Director, and by delegation the Board, will exercise the Director's discretion and will deny institution of an IPR or PGR. The USPTO is also considering broadening the types of relationships between petitioners and other entities the Office will consider when evaluating discretionary denial in order to ensure that entities related to a party in an AIA proceeding are fully evaluated with regard to conflicts, estoppel provisions, and other aspects of the proceedings. The Office is also considering whether, in certain circumstances, challenges presenting “compelling merits” will be allowed to proceed at the Board even where the petition would otherwise be a candidate for discretionary denial (as is the current practice under the Director's Memorandum Regarding Interim Procedure for Discretionary Denials in AIA Post-grant Proceedings with Parallel District Court Litigation of June 21, 2022 (discussed below)). In addition, the Office is considering whether to promulgate discretionary denial rules to ensure that certain for-profit entities do not use the IPR and PGR processes in ways that do not advance the mission and vision of the Office to promote innovation or the intent behind the AIA to improve patent quality and limit unnecessary and counterproductive litigation costs.
Recognizing the important role the USPTO plays in encouraging and protecting innovation by individual inventors, startups, and under-resourced innovators who are working to bring their ideas to market, the Office is considering limiting the impact of AIA post-grant proceedings on such entities by denying institution when certain conditions are met. The Office is seeking input on how it can protect those working to bring their ideas to market either directly or indirectly, while not emboldening or supporting economic business models that do not advance innovation. For example, the Office seeks input on to whether to require identification of anyone having an ownership interest in the patent owner or petitioner. The USPTO welcomes thoughts on any additional disclosure requirements needed and how the Board should consider that information when exercising Director discretion.
The Office is also considering additional measures to address the concerns raised by repeated validity challenges to patent claims (potentially resulting in conflicting outcomes and overburdening patent owners). The USPTO is considering further modifying and clarifying circumstances in which the Board will deny review of serial and parallel petitions. As to parallel petitions, the Office is also considering changes to provide that, as an alternative to filing multiple petitions, a petitioner may pay additional fees for a higher word-count limit.
Furthermore, the Office is considering rules related to the framework the Board will use to conduct an analysis under 35 U.S.C. 325(d), which provides that in “determining whether to institute [an AIA post-grant proceeding], the Director may take into account whether, and reject the petition or request because, the same or substantially the same prior art or arguments previously were presented to the Office.”
In addition, the USPTO is considering a rule clarifying that if institution of an IPR is not discretionarily denied in view of any other criteria, the Board shall consider whether to deny institution if there is a pending district court action involving claims challenged in the IPR. In the case of a parallel district court action in which a trial adjudicating the patentability of challenged claims has not already concluded at the time of an IPR institution decision, the USPTO is proposing rules to install Apple v. Fintiv and related guidance, with additional proposed reforms. See Apple Inc. v. Fintiv, Inc., IPR2020–00019, Paper 11, 2020 WL 2126495 (PTAB Mar. 20, 2020) (designated precedential May 5, 2020); Director's Memorandum Regarding Interim Procedure for Discretionary Denials in AIA Post-grant Proceedings with Parallel District Court Litigation (June 21, 2022) (Guidance Memorandum). The USPTO is considering separate rules for instances in which a trial adjudicating the validity of challenged claims—in district court or during post-grant proceedings—has already concluded at the time of an IPR institution decision.